Designing Motivation - Changing Human Behaviour Using Game-Elements (G-MOTIV) was about researching and applying new approaches to behavioural change based on motivation by using game elements. We have conducted research on the motivational effect of game elements in changing behaviour. Our multidisciplinary team of scientists and designers worked on developing intelligent PSS prototypes in the fields of health care and human resources, resulting in structural behavioural change. Achieving lasting change is difficult; people are often poorly motivated to change their status quo! In the domains of healthcare and human resources, this resistance leads to large financial costs for society and reorganization costs for companies. Currently, people are ‘helped’ to change using therapy, training and coaching, however these often only result in short-term effects.

To tackle this issue we needed to help people achieve long-lasting, desired behavioural change. We turned to knowledge evolving from the serious gaming industry. The game elements of fantasy, challenge and action-consequences are known to be powerful tools for motivation.

What questions were answered?
Teams from 5 universities, creative partners, service providers and application builders have worked together to answer the question: How can game elements affect user motivation for behavioural change?

What have the teams achieved?
Case-validated generic knowledge that can be applied to PSS applications aimed at changing human behaviour.

Timeframe and communication:
G-MOTIV has started in 2011 and finished in 2015. The project has generated innovative scientific knowledge in the forms of peer-reviewed journal articles, PhD theses and industry-conferences. Throughout the project, we have communicate information and results via this website.

Who was involved?
Scientific partners: Delft University of Technology, University of Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit, Erasmus University and the Technical University Eindhoven;
Creative partners: Design Academy Eindhoven, Monobanda, IJsfontein, RANJ, Novay
Service Providers: Berenschot, Humanitas, Parnassia
Application builders: Novay.

Project leaders
Dr. Valentijn Visch, Delft University of Technology
Prof. dr. Paul Hekkert, Delft University of Technology


  • What Remains?: A persuasive story telling game. Camaduro, A. & Visch, V.T What Remains? is a prototype that facilitates the intake of Alzheimer patient in care homes. The prototype generates storytelling and is based on co-creation principles involving the patient, the family Download
  • What Remains? Cadamuro, A. What remains? is a design research project that is part of a larger investigation into how game elements can be used as motivational triggers to stimulate Alzheimer patients physically and socially. What remains? uses co-design tools and turns these during the engagement with participants in the project into a service that remains and persists after the designers leave. Download

What Remains?

The growing number of people affected by late-stage Dementia demands new solutions and requires innovative approaches. What Remains? is a design research project that aims to stimulate positive behavioural changes in elderly patients affected by this degenerative disease, and helps family and staff to humanise care home services.
What Remains? is part of the CRISP G-motiv project. It requires to think and work more broadly and strategically in response to large-scale societal challenges. When these ‘grand challenges’ have very personal implications in people’s lives, empathy, respect and humility are crucial capabilities for designers. The dignity of the people with whom they work is the foundation for a strategic impact on a broader level. Here, an empathetic co-design approach can generate important value.

The prototype is exhibited at:
- A poster during the Games for Health conference 2013.
- At the Innovation Estafette (section Smart Cities) at the RAI 2013
- the Positive Design Day exhibition (2013, TUD). 
- Dutch Design Week 2013
- during travelling exhibition Design United (2013/2014)
- Was part of Cure & Care, Quality of life exhibition in Taiwan (2014).
- Brussels Design, A to Z exhibition (2014).