When  designing a PSS, designers try to find a balance between flexibility and control to create effective and socially responsible value for users and other stakeholders.
GRIP was about how designers achieve a balance between flexibility and control when designing PSS, leading to the creation of effective and socially responsible value for users and other stakeholders. When designing from a system perspective, the creative control of design is structurally lower than in product design. The designers have to deal with complex, dynamic environments and need to negotiate decisions with a range of stakeholders. The PSS development process is less formalized and is characterized by a high level of co-creation and co-production. This raises questions like how tight should  the designer's grip on the processes and outcomes of design be, when working together with end-users and other partners in PSS development?

What questions were being answered?
Teams from 3 universities and Industry partners were working together to answer the question: How do designers strike a balance between flexibility versus control when designing PSS, leading to the creation of effective and socially responsible value for users and other stakeholders?

What have the teams achieved?
Using generalised cases, the team has monitored and measured work related stress in the office environment in order to gain a broader understanding of the problems of the issues of flexibility and control. This helped to create the methodological support needed for the design of effective and commercially viable PSS with a high societal value.

Timeframe and communication:
Grip started in 2011 and finished in 2015. Throughout the project, we have published in a range of professional journals, including the development of manuals for the effective design of healthcare and service industry PSS. Progress was published via this website and explored in workshops.

Who was involved?
Scientific partners: Delft University of Technology, Eindhoven University of Technology and the Design Academy Eindhoven;
Industry partner: Philips Design.

Project leaders
dr. Evelien van de Garde, Delft University of Technology
Dr. Dirk Snelders, Eindhoven University of Technology 



Kükle was developed for self-reflection and informative reflection to others. Kükle can be used as a stress reliever by stroking over the top. Stroking reflects the stress of the user in a wiggling movement and informs people around the user about personal stress levels. In a world where people are expected to perform, stress appears in everyday situations. The feeling of stress is personal and greatly influences personal wellbeing. Nevertheless, people tend to ignore its signals. Different from humans, nature uses a physical way of expressing feelings. By analyzing and exploring different animal-like movements, a bird-liked shape was chosen and developed in order to physically represent stress in a movement. By stroking Kükle during moments of stress, there is a short moment in which people do not concentrate on the pressure of work and have a moment of reflection and relaxation. When continuing work, Kükle keeps wiggling based on the interaction it had with its user. Its behavior provides a reference for people and their environment to reflect on the user’s personal wellbeing. This will help others to be aware of how to approach the user of Kükle, which will influence pressure and workload, resulting in a less stressful, healthier ways of working and living.